The New Gender Paradigm
During the senior years and due to smoking, many men lose the Y-Chromosome from many parts of their body.
Cells respond to the problem of scattered genes by making a list of all the genes necessary for any given project -- in other words, gene sets. Put simply, there's afemale gene set(a list of all the recipes necessary to make a female cell.) There's also a male gene set (containing everything necessary to make a male cell.) Every cell has BOTH lists.
And every cell has a switch on the cell's outer membrane. In one position, the female gene set is active in the cell, while the male set remains silent. In another position, the male set is activated and the female genes are turned off. (The switch is called the Androgen Receptor -- which plays an important role in transsexual development. See HERE.)
Hormones are chemicals in the blood that turn all the switches. As a gross simplification of the process, the female hormone estrogen activates the female set of genes in EVERY cell in the body. Likewise, testosterone turns on the male set and turns off the female set. Hormones allow the entire body to act in concert . Chromosomal expression is under the control of hormones. If there's one single deterrminator of biologic sex, it would be hormones.
Transsexual Gene Sets
After transitioning, a transsexual woman is on estrogen, which activates the female gene set in every cell in her body. The process is exactly the same in her as in every other woman. Because they have estrogen in common, exactly the same chromosomes & genes are expressed -- regardless of whether they're transsexual or not.
Likewise, testosterone makes transmen exactly the same as every other man, in chromosomes, genes, cellular function, etc.
Like the rest of the body, a female brain is structurally different from a male brain. When the brain is female, the individual has a female gender. When the brain is male, the individual has a male gender.
Determination of the brain's gender takes place between days 28 - 56 post-conception -- when the brain first begins to develop. Testicles or ovaries begin to develop after day 48. They soon begin to produce testosterone or estrogen, the hormones that will control further development of biologic sex.
As described above, transformation into female biology requires activation of every cell's female gene set. Likewise, transformation into male biology requires activation of the male gene set. The brain is no exception -- brain sex determination requires activation of one of the two gene sets. For the body, gene set activation depends on hormonal exposure (estrogen or testosterone.) However, the brain chooses sex several weeks before the arrival of testosterone or estrogen.
Within the past two decades, research has shown that the brain's "sex switch" is tricked into turning on one of the two gene sets. Various micro-hormones (known as cytokines) change the "sex switch" (the Androgen Receptor) so that it will accept hormones other than testosterone or estrogen. ...Some of these hormones have passed from the mother through the placenta.
For example, one of these "trick hormones" is the stress hormone, cortisol. If the mother is under stress, her distress is transmitted to her infant. The signal makes it more likely that the infant will have a male gender, even if the body's biology is female. In other words, the infant is born transsexual.
Unfortunately, some medications and industrial pollutants can also act as "trick hormones."
© Cassandra Branch MD (2015)
Remember that there are 23 chromosome pairs in every nucleus. One chromosome in the pair came from the mother, while the other came from the father. Why does a cell need two of every chromosome? Isn't one enough? ...Especially since the two aren't exactly the same.
For example, imagine a child with a red hair gene from her mother, and a black hair gene from her father. What color will the child's hair be?
If all chromosomes were active, the mother's chromosomes would say, "Make red hair!" while the father's would say, "Make black hair!" Would the hair follicles make a combination of red & black?
In the vast majority of cases, cells don't want the confusion of having two recipes for hair running at the same time. As soon as a cell is born, one of every chromosomal pair is inactivated. It's put into a corner of the nucleus and never accessed again. Only one chromosome is expressed.
Dominant or Recessive?
Back to basic biology: Do you remember Mendel's experiments with pea seeds? Many biologic traits have either a dominant form or a recessive form (eg, black hair or red hair). What that means is, whenever a new cell is born, dominant genes shout, "Pick me! Pick me for activation!" ...So the chromosome with the recessive gene is always the one that's inactivated and placed into storage.
In the red hair example above, red hair is a recessive gene while black hair is a dominant gene. The child will always have black hair, even though she carries a red hair gene.
...It doesn't matter what genes you have. What matters is which genes you express. It would be wrong to claim that a black-haired girl is Really a Redhead because she's carrying red hair genes. Everyone carries countless genes that will never see the light of day..
Rule #1: The genes needed for any cellular operation form a gene set. They're scattered throughout the genome, on many different chromosomes.
Rule #2: Every cell carries both the male and the female gene sets. A single switch makes the change between male and female. That switch is controlled by hormones -- testosterone or estrogen.
Rule #3: Biologic sex is determined by whether the male or the female gene sex is active.
Rule #4: The Y-Chromosome doesn't do anything.
Rule #5: During fetal development, the biologic sex of the brain isn't determined by testosterone or estrogen, but by direct activation of the switch (ie, the Androgen Receptor.)
It's commonly believed that the Y-Chromosome determines whether a person is male or female.
The myth just isn't true. During the past decade, genetic mapping has determined that the Y-Chromosome carries only 72 operational genes, none of any real importance -- compared to several thousand operational genes on other chromosomes. About 166 million years ago, the Y-Chromosome began as an X-Chromosome; a pair to the other X-Chromosome. Over the millennia, the chromosome lost more and more of its structure. At the current loss rate, it will cease to exist in about another 10 million years. (Although it seems that the loss rate has decreased over the past 25 million years.)
Not that anyone will really miss it. Whenever a new cell is born, the Y- part of the XY pair is always inactivated immediately and placed in storage. Only the X-Chromosome is active in every human in existence.
The Y-Chromosome has only one brief moment of glory. At week 6 after conception, the fetus' gonadal ridge must make a choice: should it become an ovary or a testicule? At that precise moment, the Y-chromosome is allowed to proclaim "Let there be testes" -- before being put to sleep forever after. The gonads become testes, testes produce testosterone, and all the body's cells switch to the male gene set.
Good-bye Y, hello testosterone, the male gene set, and male biology.
It's taught in primary school: XY Chromosomes make a boy, while XX Chromosomes make a girl. It's the basis for WPATH and the DSM. It's the law in Texas. It's a major reason transsexuals are harassed. ...And it's just plain wrong.
Chromosomes -- disorganized
The nucleus of every cell in the human body contains 23 pairs of chromosomes. Each chromosome contains thousands of genes. Each gene has the instructions to build a single protein -- which then becomes a structural or functional part of the cell.
In other words, a chromosome is like a recipe book -- every page (a gene) tells how to make something different. A cell's nucleus provides a whole library of recipe books, plus everything necessary to read them. When the cell needs a replacement part, it finds the right recipe to make what's needed.
You'd think that the library would be organized. Say, one book would cover meat dishes (ie, how to make muscles, tendons, bones, etc), while another should be all about pasta (how to make blood vessels, nerve fibers, skin, etc.). But no, whoever gathered the library was very disorganized. Recipes for the parts of any single structure are scattered throughout the library.
More to the point, you'd think that the "male chromosome" -- the Y-Chromosome -- would have all the recipes needed to make a man: testosterone genes, penis genes, testicle genes, prostate genes, thick hair genes, and so on. But it's not. Recipes for making the components of testosterone are on Chromosomes 2, 5, 6, 8, 11, 15, 19... And penis-making recipes are on Chromosomes 2, 5, X...
Wait a minute! The X-Chromosome is the "female chromosome"! How can it have recipes for making a penis?